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Audio Measurements

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PDF Download The developement of time-correct Loudspeaker

Speaker Developement

1. The Analog.on Nugget – 1
2. The Team – 2
3. The measuring system ATB PC Pro – 3
4. The Speakers – 5
5. The Enclosure – 6
6. The Crossover – 17
7. The dampening material – 19
8. Mounting – 20
9. The sound test – 22
Theory – 24-109
Table of Content – 110-111

Table of Content Developement

Loudspeaker measurement

1. The frequency response – 1
2. The measurement signals – 2
3. The measurements – 3
4. Environment Independent Measurement – 5
5. The time behaviour – 6
Theory I-V – 17

Photostory OK²

1. The high frequency range – 3
2. The mid-low frequency range – 8
3. The crossover – 14
4. The Loudspeaker V-Monitor – 28
5. The unique technology – 41
6. The loudspeaker Analog.on OK² – 35
W1 Comparison of the sound radiation of sound baffle and Waveguide – 39
W1.1 The phantom or secondary sound source – 39
W1.2 The Baffle Step – 40
W1.3 Proof of the secondary sound sources – 41
W1.4 The time behaviour of the sound wave on the sound baffle – 44
W1.5 The delayed reflexion of the sound baffle – 46
W1.6 Comparison of sound baffle and Waveguide Simulation – 47/48

Photostory OK²

Photostory Dipol-Cardioid

1. Microphone – 1
2. Sound propagation – 2
3. The open baffle step – 3
4. The controled acoustic short circuit – 5
5. The Dipol-Cardioid Loudspeaker – 6
5. Comparing Measurements – 7
5. Cabinet drawing for the Diopol-Cardioid – 8

Photostory Dipol-Cardioid

The Quality Factor

  1. The Quality factor
  2. The Frequency Amplitude Plot and Cosinus-Burst Measurement
  3. The Quality Factor of Circuits
  4. Compensation of Resonances
  5. Evaluation
  6. K1 The Function of Digital filters
The Quality Factor

Calibration of the audio High-End System in Cars

1. Delay

2. The frequency crossovers

3. Connection plan for the DSP outputs

4. Running the software

5. Equalising the single speakers

6. Tweeter frequency response

7. Frequency response of the mid-range speaker

8. Adjusting the sound level of the tweeter and mid-range speakers

9. Crossover for tweeter

10. Crossover for mid-range speaker

11. Transition tweeter and mid-range speaker

12. Setting up the delay of the tweeter

13. Listening test for the delay settings

14. Sound level adjustment between mid-range and bass speaker

15. Crossover for mid-range and bass speakers

16. Determination of the delay for the mid-range speaker

17. The settings for the bass, subwoofer speaker

18. The settings for the passenger side

19. Setting up the equaliser

20. Adjusting to the Car&HIFI curve

21. Considerations when setting up a DSP crossover, compendium

P1. The delay function

P2. Equalising the single speakers

P3. Adjusting the delay of the tweeter using ATB PC Pro

P4 Setting up the delay for the mid-range with ATB PC Pro

High-End audio systems for cars are active systems, which means that each speaker is

driven by its own amplifier. The input signals to the amplifier from CD, Radio, and MP3 etc.

pass through a DSP (Digital Signal Processor) that includes a programmable digital

Crossover for bandwidth restriction, also an equaliser for frequency compensation and

also phase shifters and delays, to optimise the phase or time behaviour of all speakers

in relation to each other, before hand.

The correct adjustment of the DSP with its complex functions demands appropriate

measurement technology, only then make individual preference corrections real sense.

The goal of master-mind use of DSP is a well balanced and pleasing sound quality of

the audio system in general, a high definition of details, convincing stage imaging and

auditory spaciousness and also minimum distortion such as that, that results from over

powering the single speakers for instance.


Kirchner Elektronik,

Your Partner for Audio Measurement!